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Referencing Style Guide: Personal Communication

This guide explains how to reference according to the APA 6th Edition.

Personal Communication - Reference LIst

Personal communication is only cited in the text of the paper and not in the reference list.

Personal communication encompasses anything that is not retrievable by someone else. For example:

  • Live viewing of a performance
  • Interview that is personally recorded
  • Email messages

Personal Communication - In-Text Citation

Direct quote
According to the teacher, the students “are more engaged in classroom activities when they are actively involved” (D. Smith, personal communication, May 20, 2014) which requires ...